DOCUMENTA MATHEMATICA, Vol. 22 (2017), 1661-1707

Z. Izhakian and M. Knebusch

Basic Operations on Supertropical Quadratic Forms

In the case that a module $V$ over a (commutative) supertropical semiring  $R$ is free, the $R$-module $\QV$ of all quadratic forms on $V$ is almost never a free module. Nevertheless, $\QV$ has two free submodules, the module $\QL(V)$ of quasilinear forms with base $\mfDz$ and the module $\Rig(V)$ of rigid forms with base $\mfHz$, such that $\QV = \QL(V) + \Rig(V)$ and $\QL(V) \cap \Rig(V) = \00.$ In this paper we study endomorphisms of $\QV$ for which each submodule $Rq$ with $q \in \mfDz \cup \mfHz$ is invariant; these basic endomorphisms are determined by coefficients in $R$ and do not depend on the base of  $V$. We aim for a description of all basic endomorphisms of $\QV$, or more generally of its submodules spanned by subsets of $\mfDz \cup \mfHz$. But, due to complexity issues, this naive goal is highly nontrivial for an arbitrary supertropical semiring  $R$. Our main stress is therefore on results valid under only mild conditions on $R$, while a complete solution is provided for the case that $R$ is a tangible supersemifield.

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 15A03, 15A09, 15A15, 16Y60; Secondary 14T05, 15A33, 20M18, 51M20

Keywords and Phrases: Tropical algebra, supertropical modules, bilinear forms, quadratic forms, quadratic pairs, minimal ordering, unique base property. \pSkip

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